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Wired and Wireless Connectivity Tips and How To Videos from L-com

L-com’s knowledge base is at your disposal with different pdf and video tips offered on a variety of common questions that we get every day. Please browse below--They are always free and may help save you time.

Wifi AntennaFiber Optic
IEEE-488 GPIBD-Subminiature
CoaxialUSB, DIN, Firewire, SCSI and SATA
Audio / VideoPatch Panels / Racks
Telecom / Modular (Ethernet)Networking / Test Equipment
Wireless LAN Amplifiers WiFi Access Points

Wifi Antenna TipsAnswers, Videos, PDFs
How to make a mini sector antennaView
How to assemble and install a HyperLink brand grid antennaView Video
What is antenna polarity?View PDF
Tilt and swivel antenna mountingView PDF
Point-to-Multipoint antenna applicationView PDF
Easily attach a radome antenna coverView PDF
Mast or flush antenna mountingView PDF
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IEEE-488 GPIB TipsAnswers, Videos, PDFs
Find the exact IEEE-488 connector orientation style that you needView PDF
L-com reverse entry adapters solve cable extension problems in the fieldView PDF
Connector stacking vs. using a bus stripView PDF
What does GPIB stand for?General Purpose Interface Bus
What is IEEE-488?IEEE-488 is a standard established in 1978 by IEEE/ANSI. It is a digital interface for programmable instrumentation.
Why is GPIB so popular in instrumentation and data applications?GPIB is a parallel bus that permits multiple devices to be interconnected. The connector system makes bus configuration very flexible. A bus can be configured as a physical star, tree, in-line or a combination of the above.
What types of functions can GPIB devices perform?A device can be a controller, listener, talker or a combination on a bus.
What are the critical cable properties required for IEEE-488?The cable must have 24 conductors with twisted pairs. Conductor to conductor and to ground capacitance can not exceed 150 Pf per meter. An outer braided shield with a minimum of 85% coverage.
What connector type is used for IEEE-488?A 24 contact 2.16mm pitch ribbon type connector.
What kind of hardware do IEEE-488 connectors use?The hardware is Metric, M 3.5x0.6.
What is the maximum number of connectors recommended for stacking?The maximum is 3. Exceeding this can cause damage to the attached device.
What is the maximum of devices allowed on a GPIB bus?The total amount of devices is 15.
What is the maximum data rate on a GPIB bus?The maximum data rate is 1Mbps.
What is the maximum length allowed for a GPIB bus?20 Meters.
What do the abbreviations IEEE and GPIB stand for?IEEE stands for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. GPIB stands for General Purpose Interface Bus.
How are the IEEE-488 GPIB cable assembly connectors terminated?These connectors are terminated using the IDC (Insulation Displacement Connection) method. The cable conductors are pressed into a terminal slot smaller than the conductor diameter, displacing the insulation, and forming an electrical contact between the terminal and the conductor.
When would I use an in line GPIB cable assembly?In line GPIB cable assemblies are used in the following situations: 1) When it is convenient to mate a cable at a 90 degree angle. Typically, when mating to a PC or other type of device. 2) When one of the connector halves is not used in an application. This provides a cost savings and prevents the need to cover the unused connector.
I’ve used the reverse entry cable assembly offered in the molded product line but now I need the extra shielding offered in the premium and deluxe product lines. Does L-com offer the reverse entry cable assembly for either of these lines?No, but L-com offers many reverse entry adapters to accomplish this need.
What function does a reverse entry adapter perform?A reverse entry adapter allows two mated GPIB cables to extend in a daisy chain manner. Without these adapters, the cables will exit in the same direction.
What function does an extender perform?An extender allows extra clearance when mating cables to a port with a narrow opening or when clearing neighboring equipment in a tight space.
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Coaxial TipsAnswers, Videos, PDFs
When is 50 Ohm coaxial cable used?View PDF
What is the difference between a plug and a jack?View PDF
Identifying a reverse polarized connectorView PDF
Solid vs. Stranded center conductorsView PDF | View Video
When is 75 Ohm coaxial cable used?View PDF
When do you use Plenum cable?View PDF
Digital cableView PDF
Distinguishing between 50 and 75 Ohm BNC connectorsView PDF
What is the difference between a WITHIN SERIES coaxial adapter and a INTER SERIES coaxial adapter?View PDF
What is the purpose of an Auto Terminating adapter?View PDF
What is a coaxial type product?A coaxial type product is one that has two conductors (inner & outer) forming a closed transmission medium.
What are coaxial products typically used for?Coaxial products are typically used for the transmission of radio frequency (RF) energy.
What are some of the common connector types used on coaxial cable?Some of the common connector types used on coaxial cable are BNC, SMA, SMB, SMC, MCX, TNC, N, SMC, MMCX, F, and UHF. These connector types come in male and female versions.
What is the difference between male and female connectors?A male connector is commonly referred to as a plug and has a solid pin for a center conductor. A female connector is commonly referred to as a jack and has a center conductor with a hole in it to accept the male pin.
How do coaxial devices work?Coaxial devices work by transmitting energy along a path between the center conductor and the outer conductor.
What are the general types of coaxial cables?Typically there are three broad categories:
Flexible: Similar in feel to a power cord, this type cable is flexible. Semi-Rigid: This type of cable has a soft outer metal jacket and has limited forming properties. Rigid: This type of cable has a metal pipe like structure with little or no bending capabilities.
What are some of the commonly used coaxial cable types?A majority of coaxial cable types have their origins in the military world and are identified as RG (Radio frequency,Government ) Some common types of RG cable are RG6, RG59, RG62, RG58, RG142, RG174, RG188 and RG316.
Why are there so many cable types?Each cable type has performance or physical characteristics that differentiate it such as size, frequency, power, insertion loss, impedance or operating temperature.
What type of products are found in the coaxial section?Some of the products found in the coaxial section are bulk cable, cable assemblies, connectors, adapters, assembly tools, splitters, switches and baluns.
What are some typical applications for coaxial type products?Coaxial products are often used in broadcast, network, communications, audio/video and test applications.
What is frequency?Frequency is the number of times a periodic action occurs in one second. The unit of measure is hertz.
What is attenuation?Attenuation, often called insertion loss, is a loss of signal power. This term is used in both coaxial and fiber optic products.
What does VSWR stand for?VSWR stands for Voltage Standing Wave Ratio. It is the amount of reflected power expressed as a ratio (1.25:1).
What is impedance in a coaxial product?In simple terms, impedance, in a coaxial product, is the measurement of resistance to the flow of current. The unit of measurement is Ohms. The following is a more technically correct definition: Transmission line impedance, also known as characteristic impedance, is the ratio of the amplitudes of a single pair of voltage and current waves propagating along an infinitely long transmission line with absence of any reflections. Characteristic impedance measures like resistance when dealing coaxial cable types. Characteristic impedance is a relationship between the capacitance per unit length and the inductance per unit length. The inner and outer coaxial diameter ratios and the dielectric constant in the cable define the parameters involved in determining characteristic impedance.
What is the function of a coaxial switch?A coaxial switch is used to switch energy from an input port to one of a number of output ports.
What is the function of a balun?The function of a balun (acronym for BALanced/UNbalanced) is to change from one transmission medium with a defined impedance (i.e. 75 Ohms coaxial) to another transmission medium with a different impedance (ie. 120 Ohms twisted pair).
What does double shield mean in a coaxial cable?Double shielding in a coaxial cable indicates two layers of outer conductor shielding. Often one layer is a metallized foil while the other layer is a metallic braid. These two layers decrease the leakage of energy from the cable.
How does frequency affect performance of a coaxial cable assembly?In a coaxial cable assembly as frequency increases so does attenuation and VSWR. Each type of coaxial cable and connector also has a cutoff frequency which is the maximum operating frequency that they can operate at.
What is the difference between a crimp connector and a clamp connector?Crimp and clamp are terms used to describe the method used to attach a connector to coaxial cable. With a crimp connector, a ring is crimped around the outer conductor (shield) to a slotted or knurled stem. A clamp connector uses a V-shaped wedge ring to secure the outer conductor (shield) to the connector body.
What is a twin axial cable?A twin axial cable is similar to a coaxial cable except that in a twin axial cable there are two center conductors within one outer conductor/dielectric structure.
What are the primary impedance standards for coaxial cable?The primary impedance standards for coaxial cable are as follows:
1. 75 Ohms, used by the telephone and broadcast industry for the transmission of voice, video and data. 2. 50 Ohms, developed by the military for ship to ship and air to ground communications.
3. 93 Ohms, developed as a low capacitance instrumentation cable.
What are some of the major factors which influence shielding effectiveness of flexible coaxial cable assemblies?Some of the major factors which influence shielding effectiveness of flexible coaxial cable assemblies are as follows:
1. Number of shields (flat braid, round braid and helical wrap)
2. Braid style and coverage (flat vs. round)
3. Thickness of shield material and plating.
4. Connector and style of attachment.
In a coaxial cable, what is the difference in performance between a solid and stranded center conductor?A solid center conductor coaxial cable will have lower attenuation per foot than a stranded center conductor coaxial cable. A stranded center conductor coaxial cable will however be more flexible than a solid center conductor coaxial cable.
What is the function of an auto terminating connector?The function of an auto terminating connector is to create an internal termination (resistive load) when there is no mating connector attached. When mating connectors are attached the resistor is disengaged and a transmission path is created. This eliminates the need to attach terminators (dummy loads) to unconnected ports.
What is an SMA connector?An SMA connector is a semi-precision subminiature connector with a screw type coupling mechanism, 50 Ohm impedance and a typical operating frequency of DC to 18GHz.
What is an MCX connector?An MCX connector utilizes a snap on coupling mechanism and has a typical operating frequency of DC to 6 GHz. This style connector is offered in both 50 and 75 Ohm versions.
What is an SMB connector?An SMB connector is a reduced size version of an SMA connector with a snap on coupling mechanism. The typical operating frequency of an SMB connector is DC to 4 GHz. This style interface is offered in both 50 and 75 Ohm versions.
What is a BNC connector?A BNC connector is a connector with a bayonet locking mechanism and comes in both 50 and 75 Ohm versions. BNC connectors are typically used in applications below 4GHz.
What is an F connector?F connectors are threaded coupling connectors that have a maximum operating frequency of 1 GHz. The F type connector is a 75 Ohm impedance connector with wide use in the CATV industry.
What is a TNC connector?A TNC connector is similar in size to a BNC except it features a threaded coupling nut and a typical operating frequency up to 11GHz. TNC connectors are widely used in telecommunications infrastructure applications.
What is an N connector?An N connector features a threaded coupling nut and a typical operating frequency up to 11GHz. N connectors have a 50 Ohm impedance.
What is a UHF connector?A UHF connector is the original radio frequency connector with an operating frequency range from DC to 300MHz. The UHF connector features a threaded coupling mechanism and is widely used in low frequency applications.
What is a reverse polarized connector?A reverse polarized connector is a non standard type interface that utilizes a male center conductor with a female style outer conductor coupling mechanism and a female center conductor with a male style outer conductor coupling mechanism. These types of non standard interfaces are required by FCC part 15.203 for use on specific types of wireless devices. Common types of reverse polarized connectors are TNC, SMA and N.
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Audio / Video TipsAnswers, Videos, PDFs
How do I distinguish between various DVI configurations?View PDF
What is the difference between DVI single link and dual link?View PDF
Super thin VGA is ideal for tight-fitting spacesView PDF
When do you use Plenum Cable?View PDF
Using CTLB series cable for running through 3/4" conduit View PDF | View Video
What are the major digital interfaces?View PDF
Video signal transmissionView PDF
What is S-Video?View PDF
How to tame the RGB, Component, S-Video, Composite BeastView PDF
How to perform a field installation of a DGBH15FT HD15 (SVGA) jackView PDF
Typical installation of an MD44FT field installable jackView PDF
What bandwidth amplification do I need when splitting or extending my monitor?View PDF
What is a KVM Switch? Why do I need one?View PDF
What are some of the typical products found in the Audio / Video section of L-com’s catalog?Some of the products contained in the Audio / Video section are cable assemblies of various configurations, bulk cable, gender changers, VGA extenders, video splitters, KVM extenders, media converters and switches.
What organization establishes standards for the video monitor industry?The Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) is the primary organization that establishes and supports video standards.
What are some of the common interfaces found on video monitor cables assemblies?Some of the common interfaces found on Video Monitor cables are HD15, EVC, DVI-D, DB9, 13W3, and BNC.
What is the primary purpose of a video cable assembly?The primary purpose of a video cable is to transmit video, and at times audio signals.
What does the term “composite sync” stand for?The term "composite sync" stands for a combination of horizontal and vertical sync pulses.
What is bandwidth?Bandwidth is a term used to describe the difference between the upper and lower useable limits of a band of frequencies.
What is a pixel?A pixel is a single point on a display. The density of pixels in a given area defines the resolution.
What does DDC stand for?DDC stands for Data Display Channel which is the standard that defines communications between a monitor and a host system.
What is the difference between analog and digital signals?An analog signal is one that continuously varies up and down in amplitude while a digital signal is a signal that is either on or off.
What does the term baseband stand for?The term baseband stands for the unmodulated video or audio signal with an exclusive transmission path.
What does SVGA stand for?SVGA is an acronym for Super Video Graphics Array.
What is EVC?EVC is an Enhanced Video Connection as established by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) as a new standard for advanced high bandwidth/high resolution monitors.
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Telecom / Modular (Ethernet) TipsAnswers, Videos, PDFs
Right Angle Cable Boot Entry Orientations to Consider View Video
RJ45 Coupler OverviewView Video
How To Terminate a Keystone Category 5E/6 RJ45 Tool-Less EIA568A/B JackView Video
What are the types of shielded cabling?View PDF
What are the M12 adapter configuration options?View PDF
How isolation worksView TIP
Using L-com’s right angle Cat5E couplerView PDF
Using the WPMB series bracketView Video
Which patch cords are best for a 10/100 Ethernet network?View PDF
How to attach a field installable harsh environment plugView PDF
How to install a keystone style connector into a wall plate View PDF | View Video
Installing an L-com Information Outlet SystemView PDF | View Video
How to wire a surface mount boxView PDF | View Video
How to easily install a premium ECF coupler kitView PDF | View Video
What is the difference between straight-thru and cross pinning?View PDF
How to panel mount a keystone style connectorView PDF | View Video
What is the difference between Category 5E and Category 6 100 Ohm UTP?View PDF
UTP installation guidelinesView PDF
What is the difference in flammability ratings?View PDF | View Video
What is the difference between a Stewart contact plug and a commercial grade contact plug?View PDF
What is the difference between stranded and solid contact design?View PDF
How to assemble a TDS8PC series modular plugView PDF | View Video
What is Primary and Secondary strain relief?View PDF
How does a 110 IDC contact work?View PDF
What are the application differences between crossed and straight pinned modular cables and adapters?Typically cross pinned products are used for Telephony, and straight pinned products are used primarily in Data applications.
Can L-com custom pin modular adapter kits for me?L-com solicits quotations for custom programming to fit your needs.
What kind of shield do RS series adapters use?Built into the gray plastic case assembly is an inner formed metal shield. This provides 100% EMI/RFI protection when used with fully shielded modular plugs.
Is there a standard pinout for a d-sub to modular adapter?No. There is no encompassing standard that applies to a modular/d-sub adapter. Pinning is typically application specific.
What is the maximum recommended panel thickness for mounting keystone jacks and adapters?The maximum recommended panel thickness is .062".
How to buy the right modular plugThere are two important characteristics to keep in mind when selecting the proper plug. First, do the wires utilize solid or stranded conductors. Plugs for solid conductor cabling use contacts that straddle the wire. Plugs for stranded conductor cable use plugs that pierce the wire. Next, the outer dimensions of the cable jacket must be known for proper fit. The following definitions are sometimes useful: SOLID vs STRANDED WIRES: Cable utilizing SOLID wiring is commonly used for permanent premise wiring runs inside walls and ceilings. It is less flexible and cheaper than stranded cable therefore lending itself to areas where it won’t be flexed. STRANDED cable is more flexible and is commonly used in patch cords where flexibility is important. SOLID bulk cable is usually sold in pull out boxes whereas STRANDED bulk cable is usually sold in reels or spools.
FLAT vs ROUND CABLING: Modular cable can come with either a FLAT or ROUND jacket over the wires. The plug should have the appropriate entry so that it makes a snug fit with the cable jacket.
SHIELDED vs UNSHIELDED CABLING: If shielded cabling is used, shielded plugs are most likely needed.
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Fiber Optic TipsAnswers, Videos, PDFs
What is the difference between regular Multimode Fiber and 10 Gig Multimode Fiber? View PDF
Selecting the right type of fiber optic cableView PDF
Bandwidth and application differences, between copper and fiber optic cablingView PDF
What are the common fiber optic connector types?View Video
What is the MT-RJ connector? How does it work?View PDF
What is the meaning of OFNR and OFNP fiber cable designations?View PDF
The importance of the "A" and "B" markers on a duplex fiber assemblyView PDF | View Video
When do you use Plenum Cable?View PDF
What is LSZH cable?View PDF
When is a Fiber Loopback Assembly necessary?View PDF
What are attenuators used for?View PDF
What is mode conditioning?View PDF
How to clean a fiber cableView PDF | View Video
How to use fiber optic termination toolsView PDF
How to use a termination enclosureView PDF | View Video
What are the major types of fiber optic cables?The major types of fiber optic cables are multimode (allows multiple modes of light to be transmitted) and single mode (allows only one mode of light to be transmitted).
What are some of the commonly used connector types found on fiber optic products?Some of the common connector types used on fiber optic products are ST, SC, LC, FC, VF45, MU, MTP and MT-RJ.
What are fiber optic products used for?Similar to coaxial products which use electricity to transmit signals fiber optic products utilize light to transmit signals.
What is a fiber optic splice?A fiber optic splice is a permanent connection of two optic fibers thru fusion or mechanical means.
Why should I use fiber optic cable in my installation instead of twisted pair?Fiber has several major advantages. The first is lower distance limitations. A fiber cable can be run over a longer distance without adding special equipment. Second is immunity to EMI/RFI noise. This is especially useful in factory environments where heavy machinery tends to generate high levels of EMI/RFI. The third reason is low data errors. Optical fiber tends to have a much lower bit error rate in comparison to copper cabling. This reduces the occurrences of retransmissions thereby increasing network efficiency.
What is the difference between breakout and distribution fiber optic cable?Breakout cable contains multiple individual fibers each with its own aramid strength member and jacket while distribution cable contains multiple individual fibers with only a single aramid strength member around all the fibers.
What is a messenger fiber optic cable?A messenger fiber optic cable is a cable with an individual strength member either internal to the cable or in a figure eight configuration. This strength member allows the cable to be suspended between supports, such as poles or buildings.
Do you provide fiber optic cable assemblies in connector configurations not shown in your catalog?Yes, we can competitively quote most of the popular connector configurations.
What do the terms 9/125, 50/125 and 62.5/125 refer to?View Video
What is the difference between simplex and duplex fiber optic cable?A simplex fiber optic cable has one fiber while a duplex fiber optic cable contains two fibers.
What are the basic elements of a fiber link?The basic elements of a fiber link are a transmitter, a receiver and a fiber optic cable and connectors to complete the link.
What does OFNR refer to?The National Fire Protection Association publishes the National Electrical Code in which OFNR is defined as "nonconductive optical fiber riser cable". This type of cable is typically used in vertical runs from one floor to another in a building environment.
What is the difference between a fiber optic coupler and adapter?Although the terms are sometimes interchanged, a coupler typically connects fiber devices both having the same connector type (i.e., SC to SC). While an adapter connects fiber devices each with a different connector type (i.e., SC to FC).
What is the difference between a ceramic and bronze alignment sleeve?Ceramic alignment sleeves offer more precision alignment and are typically used with single mode or APC finish assemblies. The bronze alignment sleeve offers greater durability and is typically used with multimode fiber.
What is an ST fiber optic connector?An ST fiber optic connector features a bayonet style coupling mechanism and is used primarily with multimode fiber. An ST style connector will not support an APC polish.
What is an SC fiber optic connector?An SC fiber optic connector features a push-pull coupling mechanism. The SC style connector is suitable for both single mode and multimode cable and will support an APC polish.
What is an FC fiber optic connector?An FC fiber optic connector utilizes a threaded coupling mechanism. The FC style connector is suitable for both single mode and multimode cable and will support both PC and APC polish.
What is an SMA fiber optic connector?An SMA fiber optic connector is an old first generation fiber optic connector and was based on the existing Radio Frequency (RF) connector widely used in the RF world. This connector type can only be used for multimode cable and generally has poor performance when compared to second generation fiber connectors (SC, ST and FC).
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D-Subminiature TipsAnswers, Videos, PDFs
Selecting the right D-Sub cable assembly for your applicationView PDF
How to distinguish between male and female D-Sub connectorsView Video
How to crimp D-Sub contacts using hand tool CP3127CTView PDF
How to use the TDT Insertion / Extraction tool for crimp and poke type contactsView PDF
What is the difference between standard and Hi-density D-Sub configurations?View PDF | View Video
Recommended panel openings for rear mounted adaptersView PDF
Flammability and toxicity ratings of different cable jacket typesView PDF | View Video
How are slimline adapters used?View PDF | Video Video
How slimline adapters are constructedView PDF
How to panel mount adaptersView PDF | View Video
How filter adapters are constructedView PDF
Common connector types for switch boxesView PDF
How are right angle adapters used?View PDF
Greenlee punch D-Sub connector cutout dimensionsView PDF
How to apply panel mount waterproof D-Sub productsView PDF
What is the difference between assembled and molded cable assemblies?View PDF
Copper wire current carrying capacityView PDF
How to install reversible mounting hardwareView PDF
What is the difference between a gender changer and a socket saver?A gender changer is an interconnect device with the same gender connector on both sides. A gender changer allows two cable assemblies with the same gender connectors to mate.
What is a jumper wire?A jumper wire is typically a short wire used to electrically connect two or more positions within a connector.
What do the terms “wired 1 to 1” or “wired straight through” mean?These terms mean the cable assembly or adapter is wired with each conductor connected to the same connector position on each side of the assembly.
Why are most cable assemblies insulated with a PVC outer jacket?PVC (PolyVinyl Chloride) has good insulation qualities, is cost effective, and is easy to work with.
What is the relationship between a drain wire and cable braid?The drain wire and cable braid are both part of a cable shield and are electrically connected. A drain wire is used to ease termination of the cable shield for crimping or soldering.
What does the term “fully populated” mean when referring to a cable assembly?Fully populated means all connector positions of a cable assembly are connected to a conductor.
What is pitch or center line?The distance from center to center between neighboring contacts.
What is a connector?Electromechanical coupling device that provides an electrical interface that can be mated and unmated.
Why are connectors used so often?Connectors replace the need to "hard wire" connections. Advantages of using connectors are: - ease of manufacture (plug and play); - ease of repair; - ease of upgrades.
What is the difference between a shielded and an unshielded cable or adapter?A shielded cable or adapter has a conductive material over the conductors that provides protection against EMI (electromagnetic interference) and RFI (Radio Frequency Interference).
What does the term “panel mount” mean?A device that is said to be Panel Mount such as a cable assembly or adapter can be attached to a cut out in a panel, box, or frame.
What is the purpose of an insertion/extraction tool? Under what circumstances would I need it?An insertion/extraction tool aids in inserting or removing a contact from a connector. It is used to fix wiring mistakes or update an assembly to a new wiring scheme.
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USB, DIN, Firewire, SCSI and SATA TipsAnswers, Videos, PDFs
USB Cables and Features OverviewView Video
What is the difference between a USB Type A or B connector?View PDF
Where are waterproof connectors used and how are they rated?View PDF
What is USB?View PDF
How does the latching USB connector work?View PDF
Advantage of using the USB mountable extension cable assemblyView PDF
USB supports three speedsView PDF
Extending USB connections beyond the 5 meter limitView PDF
What is Firewire?View PDF
Typical installation of an MD44FT field installable jackView PDF
What is Fibre Channel?View PDF
Making cable choicesView PDF
Interface module assembly exampleView PDF
What is SCSI?SCSI stands for Small Computer System Interface. It is a peripheral interface that is used to connect devices to a computer.
How are high density connectors such as SCSI-2, SCSI-3, and Ultra SCSI 0.8mm connectors terminated?These connectors are terminated using the IDC (Insulation Displacement Connection) method. The cable conductors are pressed into a terminal slot smaller than the conductor diameter, displacing the insulation, and forming an electrical contact between the terminal and the conductor.
What do the terms "wired 1 to 1" or "wired straight through" mean?These terms mean the cable assembly or adapter is wired with each conductor connected to the same connector position on each side of the assembly.
Why are most cable assemblies insulated with a PVC outer jacket?PVC (PolyVinyl Chloride) has good insulation qualities, is cost effective, and is easy to work with.
What is the relationship between a drain wire and cable braid?The drain wire and cable braid are both part of a cable shield and are electrically connected. A drain wire is used to ease termination of the cable shield for crimping or soldering.
What does the term "fully populated" mean when referring to a cable assembly?Fully populated means all connector positions of a cable assembly are connected to a conductor.
What is pitch or center line?The distance from center to center between neighboring contacts.
What is a connector?A connector is a mechanical device that bridges the gap between two or more conductors in a circuit allowing electrical current to flow from one conductor to another.
Why are connectors used so often?Connectors replace the need to "hard wire" connections. Advantages of using connectors are: - ease of manufacture (plug and play); - ease of repair; - ease of upgrades.
What is the difference between a shielded and an unshielded cable or adapter?A shielded cable or adapter has a conductive material over the conductors that provides protection against EMI (electromagnetic interference) and RFI (Radio Frequency Interference).
What does the term "panel mount" mean?A device that is said to be Panel Mount such as a cable assembly or adapter can be attached to a cut out in a panel, box, or frame.
What is the purpose of an insertion/extraction tool? Under what circumstances would I need it?An insertion/extraction tool aids in inserting or removing a contact from a connector. It is used to fix wiring mistakes or update an assembly to a new wiring scheme.
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Patch Panels / Racks TipsAnswers, Videos, PDFs
How rack spaces and sizes are measuredView PDF
Racks are a great way to neaten up closets and labsView PDF
The PR-CMB cable management kit is designed for maximum flexibility.View PDF
What is an easy way to terminate network cabling in an industrial environment?View PDF
Building a custom panel configurationView PDF
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Networking / Test Equipment TipsAnswers, Videos, PDFs
How auto-negotiation worksView PDF
Power over Ethernet (PoE)View PDF
What are Ground Loops?View PDF
Using the TL-N044-000-R for checking premise wiringView PDF
Systems that employ RS422Systems that employ RS422 use two wires per signal to achieve differential transmission and reception. Differential transmission provides higher speed operation over significantly longer distances. When an RS232 device is interfaced to an RS422 port, the converter should be placed as close as possible to the RS232 device, thereby taking advantage of the benefits of RS422 allowing for high speed, long distance transmission between the ports. Telebyte offers many different RS422 converters; both stand-alone and rack mounted models.
What is a Hub?A hub is a network device that receives a signal from one station and retransmits to all other connected stations.
What is a Switch?A switch is a multiport bridge that segregates different portions of a network for faster network access.
What is a Broadband Transmission?A transmission method where multiple channels are modulated onto separate carrier frequencies. The result is multiple communications channels that occupy specific frequency ranges.
What is a Client Server?A network architecture where multiple user workstations (Clients) communicate with backend servers through a network. Clients are fully operating systems that are capable of processing data.
What is a Baseband Transmission?A transmission method where multiple direct current signals are placed directly onto the transmission medium(cable). Ethernet is a baseband network, hence, the "Base" in 10Base-T, etc.
What is Baud Rate?A measure of signal changes per second. Commonly used to rate the speed of a modem.
What is ATM?ATM stands for Asynchronous Transfer Mode. This is a very high speed network utilizing SONET optical transmission methods through the public telecommunications system.
What is SONET?SONET stands for Synchronous Optical NETwork. SONET is a broadband networking standard based on point to point optical fiber networks.
What is a Node?A Node is a device or station connected to a network.
What is a MODEM?An acronym for MOdulator/DEModulator. Modems are data communications devices that convert digital signals to analog signals for transmission over analog public telephone networks.
What is a NIC?Network Interface Card. Network devices that are installed in computers so that they can be connected to a network. Ethernet NICs come in different speeds as well as with connections to different media types including copper (UTP, STP and Coaxial), Fiber and Wireless.
What is a LAN?Local Area Network. A network that remains within one facility(department, office, building, campus).
What does CSMA/CD stand for?Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection.
What is FDDI?Fiber Distributed Data Interface. A 100Mbps fiber optic cabling standard developed by ANSI. FDDI utilizes a dual counter rotating ring topology for network redundancy.
What is a Media Converter?A device used to convert from one transmission media to another (Ex. Fiber/Copper Media Converter). Converters are usually externally powered as they physically "repeat" or regenerate the signal.
What are some of the common connector types found in ethernet networking?There are many connectors used for Ethernet networking. The most common are the RJ45, BNC, AUI (DB15), ST (fiber), and SC (fiber).
What is a WAN?Wide Area Network. A network that spans a greater distance and needs the involvement of a public carrier.
What is a Server?A computing device that provides a service to users on a network (clients). An example is a file server that stores and maintains documents for retrieval.
What is a Transceiver?A device used to change one media type to another. Transceivers usually get their power from the NIC (network interface card).
What is a Token Ring Network?A networking standard that utilizes a ring topology. Information is put onto the ring which is then passed (Token Passing) to the different stations. The amount of time that a station possesses the token is variable which gives some users priority on the network. Token Ring was standardized by IEEE under the 802.5 standard.
What is Ethernet?Ethernet was created by the combined efforts of Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel, and Xerox. They set out to create a standard format for computers to be interlinked for the sharing of information. The IEEE committee soon accepted their recommendations under the 802.3 standard. This standard dictates the usage of CSMA/CD as its accessing scheme.
What makes up a network?A network can be as simple as two computers connected together in a small room or as complex as thousands of computers linked over many miles. The basic requirements are the nodes(computers) and the interconnection medium(cable).
What is the maximum distance that I can use a single mode fiber cable in Ethernet?The maximum distance for a single mode fiber cable link varies between pieces of equipment. Most average between 8km and 15km but some go as far as 40km. This specification will be noted for each product.
In what type of applications are redundant connections/equipment used?Redundancy may be required when data is critical to the operation of some equipment. Applications may include emergency response systems, factory automation, power generation facilities, and water/waste management facilities.
Why should I use fiber optic cable in my installation instead of twisted pair?Fiber has several major advantages. The first is lower distance limitations. A fiber cable can be run over a longer distance without adding special equipment. Second is immunity to EMI/RFI noise. This is especially useful in factory environments where heavy machinery tends to generate high levels of EMI/RFI. The third reason is low data errors. Optical fiber tends to have a much lower bit error rate in comparison to copper cabling. This reduces the occurrences of retransmissions thereby increasing network efficiency.
Can I run a longer cable if I upgrade to Cat 6 or higher?No, the category rating only applies to the data rate that a cable can handle. It does not allow a longer cable distance.
What is the maximum distance I can run a Category 5 twisted pair cable?The maximum distance allowed for a single run is 100 meters. Using a repeater between cables however can extend this distance.
What is the difference between a managed network and an unmanaged network?A managed network offers the ability to control the way data is handled over the network. This may include the connection speed, traffic priorities, and access control. An unmanaged network is basically a Plug and Play design. The user just needs to plug it in and start sending data. The user cannot set port features.
What is Fast Ethernet?Fast Ethernet is known as 100Base-TX. This just means that it is the same as Ethernet but transmits data at 100Mbps instead of 10Mbps.
Can I connect my 100Mbps media converter to my 10Mbps hub?No. In order for a 100Mbps device to link to a 10Mbps device, a bridging function must be performed. The data packet from Device A must be absorbed and then re-transmitted at the data rate that matches device B. Hubs and switches that are designated at 10/100Mbps perform this function internally on a port by port basis. As a result, these devices are compatible with 10Mps and 100Mps Ethernet equipment.
What is the primary difference between a Switch and a Hub?A Hub re-transmits messages from a sending station to all other attached stations. During transmission, all other stations must listen and wait to transmit. This is referred to as a shared medium. A Switch applies intelligence to the connection process. When stations are attached, a switch learns each stations MAC address and associates it with the port to which it is attached. When a station transmits a message, the switch reads the MAC address for the destination station in the message. It then forwards the message to that station only. This approach allows multiple stations to communicate simultaneously.
What is Redundancy in an Ethernet network?In basic terms, Redundancy is the provision of multiple access paths to a given point for data. In the event of a break in a cable or a failure in an intermediate device, redundancy provides an alternate path for data.
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