802.3cg 10 Mbit/s Single Twisted Pair Ethernet

March 7, 2019 at 8:00 AM

 

Ethernet technologies are continuing to grow and their use continues to expand across a growing number of industries. With all of this Ethernet expansion, there has been a call to quickly identify and address the progression of standards to support wider use of the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard. That need has brought about the development of 802.3cg.

 

The goal of 802.3cg is to deliver 10 Mb/s speeds over single twisted pair Ethernet, up to 1 kilometer. 802.3cg also specifies one or more power distribution channels delivering 13 watts of power over twisted pair link segments, not to exceed 1 kilometer.

 

This single pair Ethernet standard is aimed to provide a comprehensive communication protocol, a shared networking infrastructure, and produce power for the growing sensor technologies that will enhance the effortlessness of Ethernet’s money saving, plug-and-play design. This standard will also focus on gaps in the existing IEEE 802.3 standards and look to fill them, and it will work to build a focused, industry-approved plan for developing proposed standards. Additionally, the IEEE 802.3cg working group will determine what Ethernet standards need to be developed in order to support the wide range of products now depending on Ethernet.

 

Defining Ethernet standard requirements will extend Ethernet’s reach and there are several industries that could see significant growth. These include the automotive industry that is already using Ethernet for vehicle cameras, security systems and diagnostics, and is moving towards driverless technology that is Ethernet dependent as well. Plus, smart city technology that is becoming more popular throughout the world utilizes Ethernet, and that trend towards sustainable, connected living is expected to continue to grow. And, of course, the data centers that we all depend on to keep us connected depend heavily on Ethernet connections. In turn, Ethernet has the opportunity to innovate the data centers with the development of the 802.3cg standard and beyond.

 

The 802.3cg standard’s ability to provide 10 Mb/s speeds over single twisted pair Ethernet is a welcomed progression in the evolution of Ethernet and another sign that Ethernet has no intention of slowing down.

 

802.3bz Provides Congestion Relief – 2.5 Gbps & 5 Gbps Over Copper

May 3, 2018 at 8:00 AM

 

Cat5e and Cat6 cables are two of the most widely used cables in the world. Traditionally, for conventional Cat5e and Cat6 twisted-pair copper cabling, Gigabit Ethernet (1 Gbps) is the fastest standard. A wired connection of 1 Gbps is probably enough speed for one PC user, but with the surge of high-speed Wi-Fi devices being used over the last few years, Gigabit Ethernet has become increasingly congested. Thus, the IEEE has developed the 802.3bz standard to ease the pain of 1 Gbps traffic and allow speeds of up to 2.5 Gbps and 5 Gbps over Cat5e and Cat6 copper cables.

  

To escape the 1 Gbps bottleneck and increase speeds to 10 Gbps, a network cable upgrade to Cat6a or Cat7 is usually required. At an estimated $300 per cable pull, upgrading cable is a costly process and not always feasible, especially for large networks which could also encounter expensive delays and connection disruptions in the process.  Fortunately, the 802.3bz allows users to avoid expensive cable upgrades. This new 2.5G/5GBASE-T standard can provide 2.5 Gbps speeds over 100 meters of Cat5e cable and 5 Gbps speeds over 100 meters of Cat6 cable. These higher speeds are bookended by a switch on one end and either an Ethernet extender or electronic device on the opposite end.

 

The physical layer of 2.5G/5GBASE-T is similar to 10GBASE-T, but uses 200 MHz or 100 MHz spectral bandwidth instead of 400 MHz. This is beneficial because 2.5G/5GBASE-T consumes less than half the bandwidth of 10GBASE-T and doesn’t require a high-quality, mega-shielded cable. The 802.3bz standard also provides additional features such as Power over Ethernet (PoE), which is useful when rolling out Wi-Fi access points.

 

With a growing need for faster connections, 802.3bz provides a sensible way to upgrade networking capabilities without the expense of re-cabling, all while improving user experience and avoiding costly downtime.

 

Understanding Copper/Fiber Media Converters

August 28, 2013 at 10:00 AM

What is a Media Converter?

 

Diagram of fiber optic premise wiring converted to copper with media converters

A media converter is used to extend Cat 5e/6 Ethernet cabling to distances beyond the 100 meter maximum for Ethernet by converting IP voice/video/data signals to fiber optic cabling.

 

Where are Media Converters used?

 

Media converters are used in environments where EMI/RFI is present, such as manufacturing facilities and other industrial environments. Other applications include campus networks where many buildings need to be connected via fiber. Also, high-rise buildings typically use a fiber backbone, which is laid vertically and taps into copper (UTP) networks on each floor via a media converter.

 

L-com's Media Converter offering

 

L-com offers media converters designed for both commercial and industrial use.

 

Commercial-grade fiber-to-copper media converters from L-com

 

L-com Ethernet Media Converter 10/100TX to 100FX MM SC 2km

- Plug-and-play installation
- Rugged metal case ensure longevity
- Multimode and Single-mode versions available
- Easy-to-read LEDs provide at-a-glance system status information
- Operating temp: 0°C to +70°C 

 

Industrial DIN Rail Media Converters from L-com

 

LCMC Media Converters

- 35mm DIN rail mounting
- Rugged aluminum case
- 24V DC power input
- Plug and play
- Operating temp: -40°C to +70°C

 

Cabling for LAN and Premise Architecture

July 31, 2013 at 10:00 AM

 

Diagram of Wiring Closet Rack

It's hard to fathom just how quickly Ethernet technology has grown. Today no modern office building would be functional without premise wiring, or the cabling run throughout the building to connect computers to the LAN.

 

We may be on the verge of a wireless revolution with new technologies like DAS and MESH, but for now you should at least understand the basic architecture of LAN cabling.

 

LAN wiring is often broken into three types: backbone, horizontal runs, and patch cabling, each with its own purpose and requirements. In an especially large building or in a campus of buildings, the backbone is the wiring that connects server locations together and to the Internet through an ISP. Since a large amount of data may be carried back and forth by these cables, they are typically designed for bandwidth, like T1 lines or fiber optic cables (usually multi-fiber lines like breakout or distribution style, or even ribbon fibers).

 

Close Up View of Solid Conductor Category-rated Cable

The horizontal runs are the individual cables coming from the servers to the Work Areas. Work Areas are the points where the cable is terminated in a wall plate or jack so a user can plug their computer or other device into it.

 

It is often deceptive to assume that a single horizontal run will connect to a single computer. More likely than not, it is connected into a local Ethernet switch or wireless access point, and many computers may be connected to that. For this reason, the actual data carried on a single horizontal cable could vary greatly, and if you are planning your LAN architecture, this is the trickiest thing to get right. It can also be the most expensive piece to change if you get it wrong as you may need to fish the cable back out of a wall or conduit to re-arrange it.

 

Horizontal runs are currently most often solid-conductor Category rated copper cable. This is slowly changing over to fiber optic cabling as the price gap between the two narrows and fiber optic technology improves. Note that the horizontal cable may also require special jacket types to comply with building fire codes.

 

Right Angle Ethernet Cable Assembly

The patch cabling in a LAN is often overlooked, but is also very important. In general it is used to connect two devices together in a rack in a server room, or to connect a device to a wall jack where a horizontal cable is terminated. Being exposed (not behind a wall or on a rack ladder) and possibly being moved frequently, a patch cable needs to be robust and flexible.

 

While patch cables are easily available and can be bought relatively cheap, you might want to consider that cheap cables may introduce problems to your LAN. Cheap cables often use substitute materials such as copper clad aluminum or feature low quality plugs not rated for the application. Cheap cables seldom pass the testing required for the network and will degrade your network performance.

 

With more devices requiring power (POE), the cheaper cables often cannot carry the added burden due to undersized conductors and low grade copper. For a single user's computer, the impact of this may be limited, but in a server room low quality cables can have a disastrous effect on the entire LAN. If the cable manufacturer you purchase from has a robust QC process, it will help.

 

Other features to consider are molded right angle connectors to ensure the connector isn't bent to fit into limited space, cable boots to make depressing the connector latch easier, and high-flex construction and oil resistant jackets for demanding environments.

 

L-com stocks components for every facet of your LAN, from Ethernet cables, plugs and jacks, to bulk copper or fiber cable, to active media converters. We also go beyond that, to reliable racks, panels and cable management accessories, lightning and surge protectors, Power-over-Ethernet components and everything for wireless deployment.

 

Cat 6 Shielded vs. Unshielded

June 5, 2013 at 10:00 AM


Category 6 cable with drain wire

Category 6 or Cat6 Ethernet cable is designed to provide up to 1 Gbps Ethernet transmission, and is required for 1000 Base-T style networks. However, the choice to use unshielded twisted pairs (UTP) or shielded (or screened) twisted pairs (STP or ScTP) depends on the location of the installation.

 

Typically, the shield is only required in cases where the cable is run through an area of high electro-magnetic interference or radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI), such as output by strong power lines, motors, magnets, and radio antennas. Outside of these situations, the shield does not help provide a faster or clearer signal, and can add more problems than it solves.

 

Pros and cons 

 

Without a shield, Cat 6 UTP cable is already resistant to minor and typical forms of EMI/RFI, such as having a fluorescent light or small motor nearby. In these cases, you should always run the cable at a 90° angle to the source of the interference in order to minimize exposure. Otherwise UTP is cheaper, lighter, and just as effective as STP.

 

If you need STP cable, you have to remember that the shield itself must drain, otherwise EMI/RFI can build up on it and degrade the signal inside. Drainage is typically done at the connection site by using a shielded coupler or jack that is connected to ground.

 

Also note that the weight of shielded cable, while not very heavy, can be significant if you are running multiple cables in an area. In some cases, heavy cabling run above a ceiling or behind a wall has caused collapses and structural damage over time.

 

Quick note: Visit L-com's Ethernet Product Center for a huge selection of common and hard-to-find Ethernet cabling solutions, including shielded, harsh-environment, special jacketed and more.
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