Wireless Infrastructure 101

November 23, 2017 at 8:00 AM

 

You would be hard pressed to find a business, industry or home that doesn’t use wireless communication in some way. We depend on wireless networks used by our mobile devices, laptops, tablets and gaming systems to keep us connected, entertained and informed every day. Here, we’ll look at indoor and outdoor wireless infrastructure design considerations.

 

Frequencies

 

For wireless communication to work, radio frequency (RF) and microwaves are used to transmit voice, video and data. Radio frequencies are usually used in wireless networks, they range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz and are also used for AM broadcasting, navigational beacons and shortwave radio. Microwaves range from 300 MHz to 300 GHz and are typically used for television, FM broadcasting, aviation communications, and radar and satellite links. Most home, business and government networks operate on the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) frequency bands that range from 900 MHz to 5 GHz. The ISM band frequencies incorporate many of the IEEE 802.11wireless standards.

 


Design Considerations

 

When designing a wireless network, you must always take into consideration the environmental variables in the installation area that will or could affect network performance.

 


Indoor RF Wireless Networks

 

During installation or expansion, indoor networks present a special set of factors to consider. Most wireless access points and routers have a typical range capability specified by the manufacturer. But these ranges are based on having clear line of sight, which requires an unobstructed view of the antenna from the remote point in the link. Unfortunately, this is not the case in most indoor installations, there is usually some type of obstacle present. For example, signals typically will not penetrate concrete walls and the other building materials such as metal studs, aluminum siding, foil-backed insulation, pipes, electrical wiring and furniture. All of these common obstacles can reduce signal range and affect the coverage area. Plus, other wireless equipment such as cordless phones, microwave ovens, radio transmitters and electrical equipment can cause interference and decrease the signal range.

 


Outdoor RF Wireless Networks

 

Outdoor wireless networks face many of the same challenges as indoor networks, such as reflections and multipath. Having a clear line of sight is also critical for an outdoor network, trees and leaves can obstruct 802.11 frequencies and block the signal completely. A site survey is recommended before an outdoor wireless network is deployed, it might also be necessary to clear obstacles.

 

To help you plan and design your wireless network, we offer a series of wireless calculators to get you started.

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