The Full Spectrum of Wireless Communications Protocols and Standards

March 1, 2018 at 8:00 AM

 

The IoT is the driving force behind most wireless technology today. Everything including cars, smart homes, businesses and cities will be connected by the IoT. Plus, an estimated 300 million smartphones are slated to have artificial neural network (ANN) learning capabilities that would enable functions such as navigation, speech recognition and augmented reality.

 

With all the wireless technology rolling out and market demand for wireless communications applications continuing to grow, the development of different wireless technologies is also exploding to meet that demand. In fact, there are so many new technologies emerging that some directly compete with one another and frequencies overlap.

 

Many protocols are in accordance with IEEE 802.11 standards. The IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee (LMSC) develops the most widely known wired and wireless standards, which encompasses local and metropolitan area networks. The fundamental IEEE standard of 802.11.n had of a minimum of 31 amendments through 2016, with more in the process. These cover everything from Ethernet, wireless LAN, virtual LAN, wireless hot spots, bridging and more.

 

Other IEEE standards include:

 

-    IEEE 802.15.4 for Simplified Personal Wireless and Industrial Short-Range Links

-    IEEE 802.15 Wireless PAN

-    IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless (WiMAX)

-    IEEE 802.22 for Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN), with base station range to 60 miles

-    IEEE 802.23 for Emergency Service Communications

 

802.11 wireless technology began when the FCC released the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands for unlicensed use. The ISM bands were then established in 1974 by the International telecommunication Union (ITU).

 

These are the frequency allocations as determined by the ITU:

 

Min. Freq.

Max. Freq

Type

Availability

Licensed Users

6.765 MHz

6.795 MHz

A

Local Acceptance

Fixed & Mobile Service

13.553 MHz

13.567 MHz

B

Worldwide

Fixed & Mobile Service except Aeronautical

26.957 MHz

27.283 MHz

B

Worldwide

Fixed & Mobile Service except Aeronautical & CB

40.66 MHz

40.7 MHz

B

Worldwide

Fixed, Mobile & Earth Exploration/Satellite Service

433.05 MHz

434.79 MHz

A

Europe

Amateur & Radiolocation Service

902 MHz

928 MHz B

B

Americas

Fixed, Mobile & Radiolocation Service

2.4 GHz

2.5 GHz

B

Worldwide

Fixed, Mobile, Radiolocation, Amateur & Amateur Satellite Service

5.725 GHz

5.875 GHz

B

Worldwide

Fixed-Satellite, Radiolocation, Mobile, Amateur & Amateur Satellite Service

24 GHz

24.25 GHz

B

Worldwide

Amateur, Amateur Satellite, Radiolocation & Earth Exploration Satellite

61 GHz

61.5 GHz

A

Local Acceptance

Fixed, Inter-satellite, Mobile & Radiolocation

122 GHz

123 GHz

A

Local Acceptance

Earth Exploration Satellite, Inter-Satellite, Space Research

244 GHz

246 GHz

A

Local Acceptance

Radiolocation, Radio Astronomy, Amateur & Satellite Service

 

In addition to IEEE standards, other technologies have broken away from IEEE and made the move to special trade organizations and even changed their names. Plus, there is a slew of short range communications standards vying for dominance, including ANT+, Bluetooth, FirstNet and ZigBee. No matter what your wireless communication application is, rest assured that there are plenty of standards and protocols to refer to when designing your wireless network.

 

Tutorial on Wireless Networking

June 12, 2013 at 10:00 AM

 

Wireless network antenna and devices

Entire cities and even countries are looking into ways to expand communications access for their residents as the Internet has shifted from a luxury to an imperative. The most promising solution: wireless networking.

 

Why? Wireless networking allows a non-physical (well, at least non-cabled) connection to a wireless LAN (WLAN) and onto the World Wide Web for users. So what are you waiting for? Cut the cord!

 

Be mindful of this though- issues such as network and band congestion, security, signal range and propagation, power demands, and more make WLANs tricky to implement for all but the most informed network engineers and IT professionals. Yet there's no stopping this technology in its rapid advance, with solutions such as distributed antenna systems (DAS) and MESH networks beginning to show promise. For you to get started, here's a basic wireless tutorial on terminology and concepts.

 


Wireless Standards

 

Radio frequency signals can take a lot of different forms, so in order for devices made by different manufacturers to communicate, the IEEE has provided several standards including the mainstay for wireless Ethernet: 802.11.

 

The 802.11 standard specifies the band and IP protocol used to transmit data, and provides guidelines to maximize the speed of transmission. 802.11a, for instance, uses the 5Ghz band and can typically transmit at speeds up to 54 Mbps in shorter ranges. 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, and the new 802.11ac all use various methods to increase the speed and range. The latest IEEE wireless standard, 802.11ac boasts transmission speeds of up to 1 Gbps!

 

Each standard typically requires wireless routers, access points, and other transmission equipment to match its designation, though there are many that can operate in multiple standards (such as routers that are 802.11b/g/n compliant).

 


Wireless Bands

 

In attempt to maintain order within the entire radio frequency spectrum that is available to us, the FCC and other global communications standardization organizations have designated or set aside specific ranges of frequencies for specific uses. We call these "ISM bands". ISM stands for industrial, scientific and medical to denote where these frequencies are used.  ISM bands (specifically the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequencies) are also used in commercial wireless networks. 

 

Typically access points, antennas, and amplifiers all use either the 2.4 GHz band, 5.8 GHz band, or both for WiFi. Other ISM bands have been set aside for things like cell phone use, RFID chips, emergency/municipal use, and military use.

 


Wireless Security

 

As mentioned previously, one of the big emerging issues with wireless networking is security. Without a physical cable that can be plugged and unplugged, the only method to control who can do what on a network is to build it into the software and protocol. That means it is critical to set up a wireless network with appropriate security measures and to be aware of the security status of any network you connect to.

 

For most small networks, methods such as WPA, WPA2, or WPA-PSK allow the safe identification of nodes that should be allowed on a network with passwords and other controls. Wireless routers can also use access passwords to allow administrators to adjust or update security features as required.

 
If you have questions about a wireless project or application, contact L-com's technical support line for a live response and expert advice!
 
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